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Medications Used to Treat Prescription Drug Abuse

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To those who do not understand drug abuse, they would think that it is merely an irresponsible act of choosing to take a controlled substance out of curiosity and finally getting themselves hooked. But more than that, some individuals who have been hooked on drugs started out as taking these drugs as part of their medication to heal a specific health condition. Unfortunately, every drug that has been developed does have its side effects and potential for abuse.

Drug Addiction Defined

Drug addiction is defined as a compulsive act of seeking a drug despite knowing its harmful consequences. The primary decision in taking a drug may be voluntary but repeated use of a drug can affect the brain, thereby interfering with the individual’s ability to resist such intense urges to take the drug.

Chemicals from some medicines are too potent that it can manipulate how the individual thinks, to the point of being unafraid of possible health risks. It should be noted that those people who have recovered from drug addiction have a high risk of getting back to the addiction (or going into relapse) even after so many years of giving it up.

Helping an individual to recover from drug addiction may require longer treatment. The treatment does not end with merely detoxifying the individual; it should also extend to a series of therapy sessions wherein a trained therapist or psychologist provides an extensive follow-up treatment until the recovering addicts has their minds “refocused” on better and healthier things.

There is a standard set of guidelines that can help speed up recovery, but each individual is given a tailor-made treatment that would fit the person’s changing needs.

When Drugs Take Over The Brain

brain functioning addiction

To better understand how drug abuse changes the human mindset, it is important to discuss dopamine, a chemical responsible for the happy or rewarding feeling of an individual. When a certain drug metabolite floods in with dopamine, the result is having an unusual “high”, which makes the individual seek for more. As a result, the person has the urge to take the drug over and over again to the point of addiction.

As an individual continuously takes drugs, it gets to a point where the brain is able to adjust to the excess dopamine by reducing the ability of cells to respond to it. This in effect reduces the unusual “high” that an individual feels compared to the time when the drug was first used. This effect is what is called as tolerance.

Once this is achieved, the individual would feel the need to take higher doses of the drug in order to achieve the same “high” effect. Having this kind of feeling lessens the individual’s interest on other things that could supposedly provide a more natural feeling of happiness and satisfaction.

Brain functions are altered with the continuous use of drugs. The following are aspects of a person’s mind that are affected by drug abuse:

  • Behavior
  • Decision-making
  • Learning
  • Stress Level
  • Memory
  • Judgment

Factors that May Increase the Risk of Drug Addiction

There is a question being raised on how some patients who are using regulated drugs to treat a certain condition do not become addicted to these drugs.  Several factors may increase the probability of drug addiction in some individuals, some of which include the following:

  • Individuals diagnosed with mental disorders may be exposed to a higher risk of drug addiction.
  • The gender and ethnicity could also be a contributing factor.
  • The kind of environment where the person lives can influence the behavior of an individual.
  • Sexual abuse, peer pressure, stress, family issues, and exposure to a family member hooked on drugs can also be contributing factors.

Common Drugs Used For Treating Prescription Drug Abuse

Although there are many options for drug abuse treatment, one of the commonly used techniques is pharmacological treatment. This may sound preposterous, but some drugs are designed to help in the treatment of prescription drug abuse.

Here are three common drugs used for pharmacological treatment of drug abuse and addiction:


Methadone bottle. [Photo by neeel via Flickr Creative Commons]

Methadone bottle. [Photo by neeel via Flickr Creative Commons]

This narcotic drug is used to reduce withdrawal symptoms in individuals who have been addicted to heroin or other narcotic drug. It is designed for pain relief, and has become a safe alternative to more addictive prescription opioids. In fact, methadone is being used as part of drug addiction detoxification and maintenance programs.

Precautions when using Methadone

Here are some necessary measures to be taken prior to prescribing Methadone to an individual:

  • It should not be used by patients with asthma or bowel obstruction.
  • It can slow up breathing.
  • It should not be used in large amounts for a long time because taking it can be habit-forming.
  • It should only be given to the patient that has been prescribed with it and should not be shared with others.

Misuse of Methadone

Abusing this drug may lead to health risks, some of which are:

  • Life-threatening heart rhythm disorder
  • Headache
  • Chest pains
  • Dizziness

It should be noted that alcohol and methadone can be a dangerous combination.

Side Effects of Methadone

There are certain adverse reactions that a patient may experience when taking Methadone. Not all described below, however, can be experienced by the patient at the same time.

  • Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, loss of appetite
  • Severe constipation
  • Shallow breathing
  • Infertility or missed periods
  • Impotence or lower sex drive
  • Light-headedness
  • Life-threatening heart rhythm disorder



This narcotic analgesic — which is also known as naloxone or the brand name Suboxone — works on the brain and the central nervous system to help decrease pain.

Precautions when using Buprenorphine

Patients should always provide the necessary information to their physicians so that they can be given the right kind of medication to ensure their complete recovery from a condition.

For instance, you should mention potential sensitivity to any ingredient in Buprenorphine. It’s also advised to mention to your doctor if you are taking sodium oxybate.

Conditions affected by Buprenorphine use

Extreme caution should be undertaken when prescribing Buprenorphine as it can affect several conditions, which may worsen the situation instead of helping in the treatment. Here are some conditions where Buprenorphine may have some impact:

  • Pregnancy
  • Currently taking other prescription medication
  • Sensitivity or allergy to medicine, food or other substances
  • History of blood problems, lung problems, adrenal gland problems, liver or kidney problems, blockage of bladder, gallbladder problems, or stomach problems
  • History of any recent head injury or brain growth
  • History of mental problems, as well as drug or alcohol abuse

Medications that can interact with Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine should be prescribed and taken with utmost care. Complete patient history should be provided so that doctors may be aware of any medications that can cause untoward reactions to Buprenorphine. Here are some of them:

  • Naltrexone
  • Azole antifungals
  • Methadone (may decrease the effect of Buprenorphine)

Side Effects of Buprenorphine

Expect a number of adverse effects when taking Buprenorphine. These side effects include:

  • Drowsiness or dizziness
  • Breathing problems
  • Seizures
  • Constipation
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Vomiting


This drug blocks the effects of any opioid medication that can lead to opioid abuse. This drug is used as part of a treatment program for drug or alcohol dependence. It helps in keeping a drug dependent away from the feeling of having the urge to use the opioid.

Precautions when using Naltrexone

The following precautionary measures should be undertaken prior to using Naltrexone:

  • This should not be used by people who experience withdrawal symptoms from alcohol or drug addiction.
  • This should not be used if there was any opioid medication used for the past 10 days.
  • This should not be used with Methadone or Buprenorphine.
  • This should not be used by individuals below 18 years old.

Side effects of Naltrexone

Just like other drugs, Naltrexone may produce side effects that an individual may experience. Not all of the mentioned signs and symptoms below can be experienced all at the same time by a single patient.

  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Depression (thoughts about suicide)
  • Mood changes
  • Upper stomach pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Jaundice
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Dark urine
  • Feeling anxious
  • Insomnia
  • Muscle or joint pains

Drugs that may interact with Naltrexone

Your doctor should be aware of other medications that you are taking prior to prescribing Naltrexone. This ensures that the optimum efficacy of the drug can be achieved.

The following drugs may interact with Naltrexone and affect its effectiveness:

  • Over-the-counter medicines
  • Vitamins
  • Herbal supplements

Long-term use of naltrexone is considered to be effective. In other words, it is safe to use for months without the fear of being addicted to it. Naltrexone also does not pose any danger when taken with alcohol.

Public Safety and Awareness

Scientists are continuously developing drugs, which they hope can be the cure for certain diseases and conditions. The only downside to these drugs is that there is a possibility that it can be abused because of its euphoric or pain-relieving effects.

A lot of people have been involved with drug abuse, which leads to several health complications and even to the point of death.

Drug addiction is similar to diabetes or asthma in the sense that no absolute cure has been discovered. However, proper treatment by providing medical intervention and psychological therapy can help an individual to stay away from drugs.

Although relapse may be possible, there is a need for the family, friends and the whole community to receive information on how to deal with drug abuse. In relation to this, widespread campaign programs should be conducted in order for people to be informed of the adverse effects of drugs. That way, more people can see how badly drug abuse can affect and destroy a person’s life.

Ideally, family members should be the first people to know if there is something wrong with someone in the family. Sometimes, the mere lack of time and communication may lead susceptible members of the family to resort to drugs because of the feeling of belongingness among peers. For them, the unusual “high” that they experience from taking drugs is what they want to feel because of the lack of love and concern from the family.


Study: Dogs Like To Receive Praise More Than Food

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Evidence from a recent study showed that dogs prefer to be praised by their owners rather than being offered food.

In the study, fifteen dogs were tested by brain imaging to assess their reaction to different treats. The study focused on behavioral experiments on dogs to gauge what they value more: food or words of praise.

Gregory Bern, a neuroscientist at Emory University in Atlanta, said in a news release that the study aimed to understand the bond between dogs and humans. The study concluded that out of the 13 dogs that completed the test, most of them prefer praise from their owners over food.

Emory University’s “The Dog Project” focused on investigating the evolution of dogs. The previous research project was designed to show that dogs respond more to scents of familiar people than to other people’s odors. Meanwhile, the latest research study of the team is now focusing more on identifying the dog’s ability to understand human language.

The research is indicative that dogs are hypersocial with humans, thereby creating a unique cross-species social bonding. So the next time that you and your dogs are spending quality time together, you might want to consider giving them some praise rather than giving them snacks.



All You Need to Know About Urine Drug Testing Cheating: Tips, Tricks, Facts, Myths

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urine same day drug alcohol test

Drug testing has become a standard procedure to ensure safety in the workplace and the assurance of healthy living. More than merely identifying the use of drugs by a person, drug tests are now used to check for drug use of job applicants, students who engage in extra-curricular activities, workers in highly sensitive jobs, and family members living in one household.

To understand the importance and value of drug testing in society, we need to discuss some of the important facts about drug abuse and drug testing.

  • According to a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), close to 68 percent of identified illicit drug users are under employment.
  • The annual report entitled Monitoring The Future revealed in 2015 that 34.9 percent of 12th graders were engaged in marijuana use within the past year.
  • Here’s a very convincing figure: Roughly 95 percent of companies that conduct drug testing use urine as the test sample, based on the results of this survey.

In this age of widespread drug abuse, the need for fast and accurate drug testing has become significant, and this has led to the development of a wide variety of drug testing methods:

  • Urine drug test
  • Hair drug test
  • Blood drug test
  • Saliva drug test
  • Sweat / perspiration drug test

Urine Drug Testing: Most Common Drug Identification Method

To date, urine drug testing has emerged as the most popular drug testing method. Many individuals, companies and schools have turned to this kind of drug testing because of its various advantages:

  • Non-intrusive: Other drug testing methods require human body samples that are extracted through painful or intrusive methods. Taking a urine sample is absolutely painless.
  • Wide scope: Urine is a bodily fluid that contains a cornucopia of compounds, including drug metabolites such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine, opioids, and alcohol.
  • Reliable: Most drug compounds stay in your urine for a fairly long time. This guarantees the drug test laboratory that the contents of the urine sample won’t change over time. Of course, this happens under the assumption that the sample is properly stored and free from tampering.

Process of Urine Drug Testing

Using urine as a basis to identify drug metabolites follows a fairly easy procedure. If you’re the sample donor, here’s the basic process of how urine drug testing is conducted:

  1. You will be asked to visit a pre-assigned collection facility or sample collection area. You will receive a specimen cup, into which you will put your sample of fresh urine.
  2. For precautionary measures, the people in-charge of administering the drug test will check your bags and pockets. They may require you to leave your things in a separate room, and ask you to change into a hospital gown. Don’t be surprised if someone will be present in the bathroom with you as you take the urine sample – they will simply ensure that you’re not going to cheat the test.
  3. The collection agency will probably advise you to take the middle part of the urine stream and discard the initial and final streams. The urine is to be placed into the cup provided, which you will seal with the accompanying cover.
  4. The urine sample is labeled for proper identification and taken by the collection agency, which will then turn it over to the drug testing laboratory.
  5. The drug testing lab prepares the urine sample and determines the presence of drug metabolites using chemical analysis.
  6. After the tests are completed, the drug test results are sent to the entity who requested the testing (i.e. individual, school, or company). Depending on the situation, you might just need to wait a few moments for the results to come out.
  7. Results are usually expressed in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), and will be compared with a cutoff point. Any value above this cutoff point is a positive result, while a value lower than the cutoff is considered negative.

Cheating in Drug Tests

Nearly all companies require drug tests before hiring job applicants. Pre-employment drug testing has become one of the most controversial requirements in job hiring, because it has led many applicants to get rejected from work. As a result, some applicants – especially those who know that they just took drugs – resort to cheating their way out of drug tests.

Below are three of the most popular ways to cheat a drug test:

1. Sample dilution

Diluting a urine sample – by directly adding water to the specimen – is done to increase the proportion of water in the urine to minimize or dilute the presence of any drug metabolite. Most sample collection stations put dye in toilet bowls and shut off faucets to prevent any attempt to dilute the urine sample.

2. Ingestion of detox drinks

Flushing the body of toxins to get a negative result in drug tests is another popular trick. Manufacturers of special drinks – commonly known as detox drinks – claim to help in the process of getting rid of drug compounds by making a person urinate frequently. Some products of this kind take effect after an hour or two, and the effects usually don’t last long.

There’s reason to doubt that these detox products work, but some people vouch for its effectiveness. Of course, the secret behind these products is that you’re supposed to drink lots and lots of water for the detoxification to work. In truth, it’s the water that’s flushing out the drug compounds from your system, and not the so-called detox drink.

3. Use of synthetic urine

Synthetic urine was originally designed to calibrate drug testing equipment in preparation for testing real human urine. Unfortunately, this substance is now widely used to replace real urine in order to “hide” the drugs in a person’s body. According to synthetic urine manufacturers, the strategy works because most testing centers hardly conduct genetic analysis on the specimen.

However, what potential cheaters don’t know is that synthetic urine is not easy to sneak in. Some of the reasons include the following:

  • Strict surveillance: Collection agencies are stringent in terms of checking up on sample donors. Some centers require you to open the door while you’re dispensing the sample into the collection cup, while others inspect pockets and bags to check for fake urine.
  • Urine temperature: Freshly dispensed urine is normally between 90 and 98 degrees Fahrenheit, close to human body temperature. Unless you bring a heating device and achieve the perfect urine temperature, you really cannot get away with synthetic urine.

Drug Test Cheating Myths Debunked

Due to the wide implementation of drug tests in many areas of society, it’s not surprising that a lot of hearsay and beliefs may muddle the truth. Let us discuss some of the most common myths surrounding drug tests, and the real score behind each of them.

Myth 1: Passing a drug test is required in all companies that you plan to work in.

Probably due to the global emphasis on the importance of drug tests, one popular misconception is that all companies require their workers to undergo and pass a drug test. In a sense, the truth comes in terms of some companies requiring a drug test from job applicants and new employees.

However, the operative word here is “all”. Not all companies treat drug testing as a requirement. Most business owners in the field of medicine, engineering and construction may implement this, but companies in other fields of specialization may not be that strict when it comes to drug use. Of course, their general leniency comes with the assumption that you’re not going to use drugs during office time.

Myth 2: You can use homemade remedies that can guarantee a negative drug test result.

The Internet is a rich source of information about drug testing, but some of the online content may not be accurate or even true. If you read somewhere that drinking cranberry juice or increasing your intake of certain vitamins can affect the integrity of drug test results, think again. Many of these “truths” are merely tall tales of people who claim to have the secret homemade formula to cheat a drug test.

To date, there has been no concrete research on the effectiveness of homemade remedies to render a drug test result inaccurate. Relying on this kind of fallacy could spell disaster on your next drug test.

Myth 3: Drink lots and lots of water in order to hide and dilute drug metabolites in your urine sample.

Let’s be clear: Diluting the drug compounds in urine by drinking lots of water is actually true. Drinking water in excessive amounts can effectively reduce the concentration of drug metabolites (such as THC from marijuana). However, this strategy also dilutes the natural components of your urine, which the testing lab can detect. For instance, an extremely low concentration of creatinine in urine is considered a warning sign of drug test cheating.

Myth 4: Intense physical activity can increase your chances of passing a drug test.

Attempting to cheat a drug test is really a gamble, and this particular strategy is like playing a poor set of cards in a game of poker. Exercise improves the normal circulation of the body and enhances the removal of toxins – and drug compounds – from the body. However, this will work only if the drug test is roughly a month away.

Unfortunately, many of the drug tests in companies are unannounced and unscheduled. You may not be able to predict when the next drug test would be conducted, and so you wouldn’t know exactly when you should start exercising intensely. Would you really risk the chance of getting caught?

Myth 5: Compounds from marijuana stay in your body for a predetermined time, regardless of the cannabis variety

In the same manner that equal amounts of skimmed milk and full-cream milk have different fat contents, marijuana varieties also differ in THC concentration. Don’t think for a second that all marijuana products are created equal, because that will affect how you face drug tests.

Abstinence is still the best way to ensure a negative drug test. However, if you really have the urge to use marijuana, make sure that you know how strong it is.

Precautionary Measures To Prevent Cheating In Drug Tests

Drug testing has become a norm especially in the corporate world. Most companies conduct drug screening to ensure that the workplace is safe and that the business is being run by competent people as they make critical decisions for the company.

Since more companies are now implementing drug testing policies, cheating is a natural response by some employees. However, even though people have developed several ways to cheat, company owners should be alert and one step ahead of drug test cheaters.

Here are some tips to protect companies from potential cheating in drug tests:

  1. Follow a random and unannounced drug testing schedule. Surprising employees with a drug test will not give them room to use tricks such as diluting their urine samples with water or taking detox drinks (which need an hour or so to take effect). On-the-spot drug testing is a good and effective way to catch drug users off guard.
  2. Monitor check in times at collection sites. As the superior or the HR representative, you should be aware of the distance of the collection site from the employee workstations, as well as the duration of travel to and from the testing site. You can look into these things to check if there is dishonesty in your employees, because any delay gives a hint that they’re doing something malicious within the long time delay.
  3. Use different testing methods. Sticking to just one kind of specimen to test for drugs can give employees the opportunity to cheat. Feel free to use different drug testing sample specimens such as urine, hair, saliva and blood. This way, employees would be cornered from doing anything to fake the drug test.
  4. Invite collectors to come on site. Restricting the employees to go outside the company premises for drug test sample collection can reduce the incidence of cheating. Arrange the collection agency to visit your workplace instead.


Because of the stringent measures that drug testing entails – and the stigma that people experience when they test positive for drug use – many people resort to cheating. Whatever your status is – a company owner or an employee, a school administrator or a student, a parent or a child – it is important to note that there is no easy way to cheat a drug test. In fact, we can all say that cheating a drug test is a futile endeavor.

The best way to pass a drug test is to not take drugs. Period.


Confirm BioSciences & TestCountry CEO Zeynep Ilgaz Wins Most Admired CEO Award from San Diego Business Journal

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Employees With Economic Instability More Prone to Drinking After Work Hours

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employee drinking alcohol outside work hours

Many studies in the past have revealed that people who lose their jobs have a higher risk of engaging in alcohol consumption. However, new research sheds light into a possibly similar trend with those who have kept their jobs but during economic instability.

Based on a recent study by researchers from the Research Institute on Addictions at the University at Buffalo in New York, alcohol consumption increased in employees during a time of economic recession. The study by Michael Frone and colleagues conducted surveys of more than 5,000 U.S employees, close to half of which were asked before the recent U.S. recession, and the rest asked after the economic downtrend. The survey was conducted over the phone.

Results showed that people who had work during and after the recession had a higher likelihood to drink alcohol outside work hours than those working prior to the economic struggle. “Despite the increased stress at work that came with the recession, employees decreased their alcohol use during the workday to avoid putting their employment in jeopardy… But perhaps to reduce stress, they increased both excessive alcohol use and drinking right after work,” Frone said in a news release.

The figures were most prominent in middle-age workers, who drank more frequently than the younger generation of employees.

The research team believes that the results of their study reveal a disturbing and vicious cycle for employees working during an economic crisis. “Excessive drinking can lead to absenteeism or coming to work hung over, which can affect productivity. Also, increased drinking after work may lead to family problems, which can affect performance at work,” Frone added.

The study was published in the journal Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.



Happy New Year!

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Vegar Norman

Happy New Year from your friends at TestCountry! Have a wonderful 2016.


[Photo courtesy of Vegar Norman on Flickr]

Merry Christmas!

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Dustin Gaffke

Do you have your designated driver for the holiday season?

Wishing you a joyful and safe holiday season.



[Photo courtesy of Dustin Gaffke and Alfonso on Flickr]

Kids who take Medication for ADHD Twice as Likely to be Bullied

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As if they didn’t have enough problems dealing with their disorder, middle and high school students who have been diagnosed with  attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are twice as likely to be bullied as those who have not been diagnosed with the disorder.

A University of Michigan study has found that students taking medication like Ritalin and other stimulants were twice as likely to be bullied as students without ADHD while those who sold or shared their medications were four-and-a-half times likelier to be victimized. This was true for both genders.

For the study, research assistant professor Dr. Quyen Epstein-Ngo and her colleagues surveyed nearly 5,000 middle and high school students over four years. About 15% had been diagnosed with ADHD while nearly 4% had been prescribed Ritalin or another stimulant within the past year. Of those who took pills, 20% said they’d been asked to sell or share them, and about half of the students did share or sell their pills with others.

The University of Michigan researchers recommend a closer collaboration between parents and doctors to ensure effective treatment of ADHD children without increasing their risk for victimization.




Study: Surgeons Have High Likelihood To Engage In Smoking

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doctors surgeons smoking

If you think health care professionals are absolutely free from the lures of smoking, a recent study discovered that they aren’t.

According to a team of researchers led by Filipino pulmonologist Dr. Angelo T. Adraneda, doctors who had either a high work burden or a stressful work schedule were more prone to smoking cigarettes. In a survey conducted on doctors working in Metro Manila hospitals, close to 28 percent of the physicians were identified to be smokers. Out of this crop, almost 40 percent of the smoking professionals were surgeons, followed by those who had to work every two days.

Another identified factor that increases the likelihood of physicians to engage in smoking is bring in the company of fellow doctors and superiors who also smoke.

The research team emphasized the irony behind this statistic. “A considerable number of physicians continue the habit despite knowing its ill effects and consequences,” said Adraneda in a news release. He further stated that doctors should shape the industry to become perfect examples of promoting healthy choices and staying away from bad habits such as smoking. “Health care professionals, particularly those who are considered specialists, should act as role models for health and wellness,” the study lead author added.

Details of the study will be presented on October 26 during CHEST 2015, the annual convergence of American College of Chest Physicians members.



Plant Compound May Decrease Risk of Breast Cancer in Women Under Hormone Replacement Therapy

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woman breast cancer

A number of women under post-menopausal stage undergo hormone replacement therapy by taking a combination of estrogen and progesterone. However, this treatment increases the risk of these women to develop breast cancer tumors. A new study aims to send hope to post-menopausal females through a recently identified natural compound that combats the effects of tumor-causing hormones.

The breakthrough compound is called luteolin, a naturally-occuring substance found in some plants — parsley, thyme, broccoli, and celery, to name a few. A team of researchers from the University of Missouri led by Salman Hyder discovered that the compound inhibits the connection of blood vessels in a woman’s breast tissue to cancer cells.

Laboratory tests were done in-vitro on human breast cancer cells, as well as on mice with breast cancer. Both tests showed that luteolin exhibited anti-tumor characteristics.

“Research has proven that a higher incidence of breast cancer tumors can occur in women receiving therapies that involve a combination of the natural component estrogen and the synthetic progestin,” said Hyder in a news item. With the discovery of luteolin and its promising advantages to human health, the researchers believe that more studies should be conducted to develop the compound as a real treatment option. “We feel that luteolin can be effective when injected directly into the bloodstream, so IV supplements may still be a possibility,” Hyder said.

While the compound has not yet been studied in great detail, Hyder believes that women can benefit from a healthy diet. “Until the supplement is tested for safety and commercialized, which we hope will happen after further testing and clinical trials, women should continue consuming a healthy diet with fresh fruits and vegetables.”